Study: Preparing for the Lord’s Supper

 

Based on Luther’s Small Catechism, “Christian Questions with their Answers”

Word-Baptism-Communion1

Christian Questions with their Answers-in prep for HC

 

If intending to use this study, please give credit where it is due.  Thank you.

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Readings for Easter Tuesday

 

Daniel 3:8–28

8At that time certain Chaldeans came forward and maliciously accused the Jews. 9They declared to King Nebuchadnezzar, “O king, live forever! 10You, O king, have made a decree, that every man who hears the sound of the horn, pipe, lyre, trigon, harp, bagpipe, and every kind of music, shall fall down and worship the golden image. 11And whoever does not fall down and worship shall be cast into a burning fiery furnace. 12There are certain Jews whom you have appointed over the affairs of the province of Babylon: Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. These men, O king, pay no attention to you; they do not serve your gods or worship the golden image that you have set up.”

      13Then Nebuchadnezzar in furious rage commanded that Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego be brought. So they brought these men before the king. 14Nebuchadnezzar answered and said to them, “Is it true, O Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, that you do not serve my gods or worship the golden image that I have set up? 15Now if you are ready when you hear the sound of the horn, pipe, lyre, trigon, harp, bagpipe, and every kind of music, to fall down and worship the image that I have made, well and good. But if you do not worship, you shall immediately be cast into a burning fiery furnace. And who is the god who will deliver you out of my hands?”

      16Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego answered and said to the king, “O Nebuchadnezzar, we have no need to answer you in this matter. 17If this be so, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and he will deliver us out of your hand, O king. 18But if not, be it known to you, O king, that we will not serve your gods or worship the golden image that you have set up.”

      19Then Nebuchadnezzar was filled with fury, and the expression of his face was changed against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. He ordered the furnace heated seven times more than it was usually heated. 20And he ordered some of the mighty men of his army to bind Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, and to cast them into the burning fiery furnace. 21Then these men were bound in their cloaks, their tunics, their hats, and their other garments, and they were thrown into the burning fiery furnace. 22Because the king’s order was urgent and the furnace overheated, the flame of the fire killed those men who took up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. 23And these three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, fell bound into the burning fiery furnace.

      24Then King Nebuchadnezzar was astonished and rose up in haste. He declared to his counselors, “Did we not cast three men bound into the fire?” They answered and said to the king, “True, O king.” 25He answered and said, “But I see four men unbound, walking in the midst of the fire, and they are not hurt; and the appearance of the fourth is like a son of the gods.”

      26Then Nebuchadnezzar came near to the door of the burning fiery furnace; he declared, “Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, servants of the Most High God, come out, and come here!” Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego came out from the fire. 27And the satraps, the prefects, the governors, and the king’s counselors gathered together and saw that the fire had not had any power over the bodies of those men. The hair of their heads was not singed, their cloaks were not harmed, and no smell of fire had come upon them. 28Nebuchadnezzar answered and said, “Blessed be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, who has sent his angel and delivered his servants, who trusted in him, and set aside the king’s command, and yielded up their bodies rather than serve and worship any god except their own God.

Acts 13:26–33

26“Brothers, sons of the family of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, to us has been sent the message of this salvation. 27For those who live in Jerusalem and their rulers, because they did not recognize him nor understand the utterances of the prophets, which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 28And though they found in him no guilt worthy of death, they asked Pilate to have him executed. 29And when they had carried out all that was written of him, they took him down from the tree and laid him in a tomb. 30But God raised him from the dead, 31and for many days he appeared to those who had come up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are now his witnesses to the people. 32And we bring you the good news that what God promised to the fathers, 33this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus, as also it is written in the second Psalm, “‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you.’”

Luke 24:36–49

36As they were talking about these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, “Peace to you!” 37But they were startled and frightened and thought they saw a spirit. 38And he said to them, “Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? 39See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself. Touch me, and see. For a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have.” 40And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. 41And while they still disbelieved for joy and were marveling, he said to them, “Have you anything here to eat?” 42They gave him a piece of broiled fish, 43and he took it and ate before them.

      44Then he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.” 45Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, 46and said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, 47and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem. 48You are witnesses of these things. 49And behold, I am sending the promise of my Father upon you. But stay in the city until you are clothed with power from on high.”

Collect of the Day

Almighty God, through the resurrection of Your Son You have secured peace for our troubled consciences. Grant us this peace evermore that trusting in the merit of Your Son we may come at last to the perfect peace of heaven; through the same Jesus Christ, Your Son, our Lord, who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

 

The Greatest Commandment

34When the Pharisees heard that [Jesus] had silenced the Sadducees, they gathered together. 35And one of them, a lawyer, asked him a question to test him. 36“Teacher, which is the great commandment in the Law?” 37And he said to him, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. 38This is the great and first commandment. 39And a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 40On these two commandments depend all the Law and the Prophets.”

      41Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question, 42saying, “What do you think about the Christ? Whose son is he?” They said to him, “The son of David.” 43He said to them, “How is it then that David, in the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying,

44“‘The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, until I put your enemies under your feet’?

45If then David calls him Lord, how is he his son?” 46And no one was able to answer him a word, nor from that day did anyone dare to ask him any more questions. Matthew 22:34-46

With these words, Jesus sums up the entire Law of God.  Indeed, as noted elsewhere in the Bible, Love is the fulfillment of the law (Romans 13:10).  Love God and Love neighbor are the two tables of the Law.  This is what is taught in our confirmation classes.  The First Table, Love for God, has to do with Commandments 1-3, Having no other god before the Triune God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, Not misusing God’s Name, and not despising the preached Word.  The Second Table, Love for Neighbor, has to do with Commandments 4-10, Honoring Father and Mother, Not murdering, not committing adultery, not stealing, not bearing false witness, and not coveting.

But by keeping these commandments of God, summed up with that word, Love, we are not saved.  So St. Paul writes, The law is not of faith, but ‘the man who does them shall live by them’ (Galatians 3:12).  He also says, As many as are of the works of the law are under the curse; for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who does not continue in all things which are written in the book of the law, to do them.” But that no one is justified by the law in the sight of God is evident, for “the just shall live by faith” (Galatians 3:10-11).

To be saved by the law, you would have to be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect (Matthew 5:48).  Such you are not.  And neither am I.  By the law is not salvation, but condemnation.  By the law is the knowledge of sin (Romans 3:20).  Salvation must come another way.  It comes by way of Christ.  Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us (for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree”), that the blessing of Abraham might come upon the Gentiles in Christ Jesus, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith (Galatians 3:13-14).  By grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works, lest anyone should boast (Ephesians 2:8-9).

The Law shows us our sin.  And just by those few words of our Lord from our text, You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.  And You shall love your neighbor as yourself, our Lord convicts us all, even the Pharisees to whom He was speaking (Matthew 22:37, 39).  If it was just a matter of outwardly doing what God says, that would be one thing.  This is what the Jews of Jesus’ day and the Sons of Israel thought.  They believed that just going through the motions of sacrifice and giving lip service that they were doing their good works to God.  It was as Isaiah the prophet writes, These people draw near with their mouths And honor Me with their lips, But have removed their hearts far from Me, And their fear toward Me is taught by the commandment of men (Isaiah 29:13).

There is such a thing called ‘civil righteousness’, which all are able to do.  By civil righteousness, I mean the ability to follow the outward doings of human law, like keeping the ordinances, statutes, and laws of the local, state, and federal governments.  But by these we are not saved.  Doing them is a good thing and serves our own interests of not being punished for doing what the law requires, as well as serving society and keeping order.  But before God, just ‘doing the doing’ is not sufficient for eternal life.

To some extent, too, we are able to keep God’s law, at least the external side of side of it.  A number of years ago, surveys revealed that most people believed that they would be going to heaven because they’ve done just that, that is, kept the law outwardly; they haven’t murdered, they have stolen, and they haven’t committed adultery.  But by this way of thinking, they were greatly mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the nature of God’s law.  It is true that they might not have done those things outwardly, but it is not true that those people have done those things inwardly.

Not committing adultery also means having chaste and decent thoughts.  Not murdering also means not hating.  Not stealing also means not wanting something that is not yours.  When God says, Love your neighbor as yourself, He means love others as you would like to be loved.  This includes the heart, not only the show of love.  God even goes further and tells us to love our enemies.  He says, You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’  But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you (Matthew 5:43-44).  It’s easier to love someone who loves you back.  But here, God would have us love even those who don’t love us.

By ourselves, this is impossible, but as we look to Christ, we see Him loving us, even as fear, love, and trust in Him above all things on our part be lacking because of our sinfulness.  But even while we were still sinners, Christ died for us (Romans 5:8).  It is of God who shows mercy, not because of any merit or worthiness in us, but because of who He is (Romans 9:16). Our God is a God a God full of compassion, and gracious, Longsuffering and abundant in mercy and truth (Psalm 86:15).

Because our God is these things towards us, though we deserve them not, so His Word also takes root in our hearts, and thus we are so towards others, in Christ, even as St. John writes in his first epistle (letter), Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God; and everyone who loves is born of God and knows God. He who does not love does not know God, for God is love. In this the love of God was manifested toward us, that God has sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through Him. In this is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins. Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another. (1 John 4:7-11)

Love others we begin to do because of God’s love towards us.  And though our love be imperfect, God’s love towards us is not.  In Christ, full forgiveness is ours.  He paid the penalty for all of our sinfulness.  No sin is left remaining against us on account of Christ.  Though we don’t love our neighbor, all who around us, even within our own family, as we should, on account of Christ, these sins are not held against us as we cling to God’s Son in faith.  This is not, however, reason to forsake God’s law.  We should not keep on sinning because we are forgiven.  Nor are we to continue in sin that grace may abound (Romans 6:1).

God’s Law, summed up by the Word, Love, is not an option, nor does the Gospel mean that God’s law can be set aside.  This might be the understanding of many within Christendom, but it is not God’s way.  Just because God is love doesn’t mean that He accepts sinful behavior.  Nor does it mean that tolerance is to be the watchword in the church towards couples living together before marriage, homosexuality, and the dumbing down of God’s doctrine for the sake of mission.  Our God is a God of love, but He is not a permissive God who lets anything and everything go.  This is not forgiveness.  Forgiveness has to do with Christ on the cross.  On Mt. Calvary is where God meeted out just punishment for the sin of the world.  By our works and according to our own inclinations we have God’s mercy not.  Only in Christ we do.

God’s Word still stands.  Being God’s people doesn’t mean that we do whatever we want, however we want, whenever we want.  Being God’s people means that, baptized into the Name of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, we live according to His Word, not our own.  This we do by faith in His Son, Jesus Christ.  God’s purpose for our life doesn’t have to be figured out or searched out, as is the popular thing to do among many in Christendom.  God’s purpose for you is to be found in His Word.  Christ’s words of Loving God and loving neighbor are all encompassing.  There’s nothing left for us to figure out according to these words.  Here, Christ is crystal clear.  All the books in the world, as popular as they might be, add nothing to the summation of God’s law with the word Love.

By love, I do not mean that we get right with God by us doing.  God’s commands still stand.  His Word we are to keep regardless of what we think or feel.  But loving God with all our heart, soul, and mind, and loving our neighbors as ourselves won’t save us.  Only Christ does.  By Him are our sins not counted against us.  And thank God that this is the case.  If it wasn’t, all would lost and for naught.

To God, we have faith and are saved.  But while we live in the world, God would have us live in love towards Him in our hearts and by what we say and do.  He would also have us love our neighbors as ourselves, even our neighbors that we believe not to deserve it.  As God loves us, so also are we to love others. Loving God above all things has to do with loving His Christ, believing in Him alone for salvation, for there is salvation in none other (Acts 4:12).  Loving God also means keeping His Word, His doctrine, pure and undefiled.  Loving neighbor means not only letting the little things go that trouble us, but also speaking the truth in love.  Loving neighbor also means bearing one another’s burdens, looking out for the interests of others, giving respect to whom respect is due and giving honor to whom honor is due (Galatians 6:2; Philippians 2:4; Romans 13:7).

With love towards others, we live in the world.  But by our love, eternal life is not ours.  We confess our sins for this very reason, for we have not done as we ought.  But God’s love in Christ covers our lovelessness, and by Him, do we begin to love others, even as He loves us.  Amen.

The peace that passes all human understanding keep your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus our Lord.  Amen.

Mt22.34-46, Pentecost 19, 2011, Outline & Notes

Christ is no new lawgiver

The Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost.

Luke 19:10

Christ is no new lawgiver.  The Bible is more than just a book of do’s and don’ts.  It is the precious book of salvation, as is Christ is the precious Savior of the sinner.

Though Jesus does indeed accuse, convict, and condemn by the Law, so much more does He acquit, forgive, and save by means of the Gospel.  He speaks words of sins forgiven to those who are troubled and laid low by what they have done, what they think, and by their own sinful wants and desires.

Come seeking Christ to be a judge of your sin, and so shall He be.  The Law of God is too firm to be shaken, too fixed to be flexible, and too solid to be moved.  You can’t undo what undoable.  You can’t avoid what is unavoidable.  The only thing you can do before the Law is plead for God to be merciful.

Should you not see yourself as God sees you, then you will fail to see your absolute dependence on God’s mercy in Christ.  Should you not see yourself as God sees you according to His Law (The Ten Commandments), then you will surely not see your dire need for Jesus to be your Savior, and you will reject God’s abundant love towards you.

On the other hand, should you see yourself as God sees you, you will thus see yourself rightly.  And listening to His Word, you will know how utterly lost your situation is of yourself.  Nothing you do can change how God sees you.  Nothing you change can alter your standing before God.  If it were up to you, all would truly be lost!

Yet by God’s mercy, your standing before God is not up to you.  By God’s mercy, how God sees you is not up to you.

Reject Christ and His Word and before God, there is only that accusing, convicting, and condemning Word of Law which will ring in your ears.  But hear Christ and His blessed Word of forgiveness, life, and salvation, and there is only that acquitting, forgiving, and saving Word of the Gospel.

By God’s mercy your standing before God remains upon Christ.  By God’s mercy, how God sees you is how God the Father sees His Son.  Now, the Father’s words of His Son are also the Father’s words on you, “This is my son, in whom I am pleased” (Matthew 3:17).

In Christ, then, the Father finds you and saves you.  In Christ, no longer are you lost, but found.  And in Christ, your salvation is sure.

Luther

“If Christ gave Himself into death for our sins, then undoubtedly He is not a tormentor. He is not One who will cast clown the troubled, but One who will raise up the fallen and bring propitiation and consolation to the terrified. Otherwise Paul would be lying when he says “who gave Himself for our sins.” If I define Christ this way, I define Him correctly, grasp the authentic Christ, and truly make Him my own. I avoid all speculations about the Divine Majesty and take my stand in the humanity of Christ. There is no fear here; there is sheer sweetness, joy, and the like. This kindles a light that shows me the true knowledge of God, of myself, of all creatures, and of all the wickedness of the kingdom of the devil.”  (Luther’s Lectures on Galatians, LW 26, p39).

Prayer: Lord, help me to remain ever closer to Jesus, believing His precious promise of forgiveness to me a sinner.  Help me not falter in my faith, but all the more to seek Your abundant help in Christ my Savior.  Amen.

What is the Gospel?

The Bible teaches that, “All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Romans 3:23), and that “the wages of sin is death” (Romans 6:23).  This is the Law of God, which convicts everyone, no one excluded, of sin (Romans 3:10, 20).  But the Good News, the Gospel, is this, that “the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Romans 6:23, 1 John 2:1-2).  Jesus’ death on the cross means forgiveness of sins before God, peace with God, and eternal life, and not because of what one does or how one lives (Ephesians 2:8-9).  This is the Gospel.

“You are not under law but under grace…”

Sin shall not have dominion over you, for you are not under law but under grace.

Romans 6:14

Even for God’s people, it is easy to forget the wonderful works of God, the works of God by which He saves us through faith in Jesus Christ. It’s not easy because of Holy Scripture. It’s easy to forget God’s grace to us in Christ on account of our sinful nature, on account of the world, and on account of the devil himself. We take for granted the remission of sins, God’s goodness toward us, and all the blessings with which He blesses us. We begin to believe that we somehow contribute to God’s favor toward us—saying and doing the right thing, being good, acting humbly, trying to dot all the I’s and cross all the T’s. We thus strive all the more by our own activities to be certain of God’s will toward us.

Also, in the midst of taking for granted what God gives to us and does for us, and adding our contributions, ironically, we become less certain and more doubtful of our genuine and eternal peace with God. The more we place on our shoulders, the less is placed on Christ, and the less sure we become. On the other hand, when all is placed on Christ for certainty of salvation, and none on us, there is nothing but certainty. Thus will we also fight against those tendencies to “do things on our own,” to forsake the Word of God, to trust in our own faith. Rather will we seek Christ, hear his voice, and attend to the hearing of His Holy Word, for there we know God for us in Christ, God’s grace in Christ. Amen.

Luther

Therefore I admonish you, especially those of you who are to become instructors of consciences, as well as each of you individually, that you exercise yourselves by study, by reading, by meditation, and by prayer, so that in temptation you will be able to instruct consciences, both your own and others, console them, and take them from the Law to grace, from active righteousness to passive righteousness, in short, from Moses to Christ. In affliction and in the conflict of conscience it is the devil’s habit to frighten us with the Law and to set against us the consciousness of sin, our wicked past, the wrath and judgment of God, hell and eternal death, so that thus he may drive us into despair, subject us to himself, and pluck us from Christ. It is also his habit to set against us those passages in the Gospel in which Christ Himself requires works from us and with plain words threatens damnation to those who do not perform them. If here we cannot distinguish between these two kinds of righteousness; if here by faith we do not take hold of Christ, who is sitting at the right hand of God, who is our life and our righteousness, and who makes intercession for us miserable sinners before the Father (Heb. 7:25), then we are under the Law and not under grace, and Christ is no longer a Savior. Then He is a lawgiver. Then there can be no salvation left, but sure despair and eternal death will follow. (Luther’s Lectures on Galatians, LW 26, p10-11)

Prayer: Gracious God, help me to resist the temptation of the devil, the world, and my own sinful flesh to seek help apart from you. Give me confidence of Your tender mercies towards me in Jesus Christ, so that I be sure of Your grace and not entertain thoughts that I have strength of my own before You. Amen.

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